Types Of Paints

Paint and enamel - the main differences of compositions

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Question: "What distinguishes paint from enamel?" - sounds very often, but even those who are professionally associated with paintwork materials can not always give a clear answer. There is a common opinion that enamel is the same as enamel paint. Many believe that the difference between enamel and paint is that the first material is shiny and the second is matte. Of course, such a conclusion is incorrect. Despite the seeming similarity of definitions, there are more significant differences between such definitions as "paint", "enamel" and "enamel paint" than the presence or absence of gloss.

  • Terminology and composition
  • Types of enamel paint
  • Alkyd enamels and oil paints

Terminology and composition

First of all, it must be said that there is nothing in common between enamel and paintwork materials. Enamel is a vitreous formation, which includes quartz, alkali metal oxides, pigments and other constituents. After application to the substrate, these components are heat treated, resulting in a very strong, wear-resistant protective layer. Unlike paints, which are applied to the surface of the product, the enamels are fused. As an example of the use of enamel, enameled dishes, bathrooms with enamel coating, some varieties of ceramics, etc. can be cited.

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Paint is a broader concept than an enamel painting compound. The first enamel paints appeared after the chemists learned to modify the pentaphthalic linseed oil with alkyd resins. Unlike the enamel composition, the usual paint and varnish material is produced on the basis of linseed oil( natural varnish), brought to a boil. The difference in the composition is noticeable even by the marking: on banks with enamel paint there is always an abbreviation PF( pentaphthalic), but simple colors contain the MA index( oil).From the usual enamel paint is more smooth and durable coating.

Enamel paint is a liquid or pasty pigment whose medium is a solution of film-forming agents in organic solvents. As a film former, lacquer, alkyd resin or other substance with similar physico-chemical characteristics is usually used. When the enamel paint material dries, an opaque film remains on the surface, differing in different cases both in color and texture.

As for the luster of the coating, this indicator depends not only on the film former, but also on the additives that make up the LMC, and therefore some conventional paints shine much more intensely than the enamel ones.

It is worth mentioning about this characteristic feature of the enamel composition, like a sharp smell. For ordinary paints, an unpleasant strong odor is not at all necessary, especially if they are made on a water basis: the odor may be absent, be weak or even aromatized.

Despite the above, it should be noted that enamel paint is not always the best choice. The feasibility of using enamel paints depends on specific circumstances. For example, if for window wooden frames the best choice is alkyd enamel paint, then for park bench it is better to choose polyurethane paint.

With hardness and elasticity, the situation is more unambiguous: the enamel paint is stronger. It should also be noted the high moisture resistance of enamels in comparison with conventional paints that swell and crack under the influence of moisture.

Enamels are a relatively small segment of paintwork materials, in which the compositions are characterized by high strength and opacity. Especially often enamels are used in industry when it is necessary to prevent the development of corrosive processes.

Types of enamel paints

There are many varieties of enamel compositions. The following are only the most common:

  1. Nitrocellulose. They include cellulose nitrate, pigmenting agents, additives, fillers and a solvent. Most often used for painting metal, concrete and wood. Packed in cans and aerosol cans. A characteristic feature is a caustic acetone smell. Without the appropriate technological instructions for preparation, a combination with other paints is unacceptable.
  2. Silicone. Such formulations can be applied to materials and surfaces of all types. Characteristic qualities of organosilicon enamel paint include resistance to moisture, increased strength and resistance to wear. This type of paintwork materials can only be combined with a dried acrylic coating.
  3. Pentaftal and glyptal. They belong to the sub-species of oil paints and are produced from combined and synthetic drying oils after modification with alkyds. This kind of paintwork is compatible with polyurethane-alkyd, acrylic and epoxy compounds.
  4. Acrylic. They are an aqueous dispersion based on latex. Acrylic enamels can only be combined with those paints, which are based on water. However, it is also possible to combine with other varieties of paints, subject to appropriate training.
  5. Urethane and alkyd-urethane. They are characterized by very high strength and resistance to wear. Such formulations can be applied on surfaces painted with oil, epoxy or pentaphthalic paint.

The list of enamel paints is actually much wider. To get acquainted with the full list of compounds it is recommended to consider special tables of compatibility of materials, where the names and characteristics of enamels are indicated.

Please note! Categorically it is not recommended to apply oil paint to nitro-enamel, as nitrocellulose is curdled on contact with another solvent. If you mix these types of paint, the surface will start to bubble and swell.

Alkyd enamels and oil paints

Alkyd enamel paint can be applied on surfaces painted with oil paints. Below is the instruction for the application of coatings with their own hands:

  1. As before, the surface must be prepared before applying the coloring compound. Without preparatory work, it is impossible to achieve proper adhesion: the paint will exfoliate. Preparation involves removing the old coating. Note that the old coating should only be removed if it is easily removed by mechanical action. If the coating is very strong, we remove dirt and dust from it, and then we process it with a nest with large grains.
  2. All the dust formed after work nazhdachkoy sweep. Flush the surface with a warm soda solution. Then again, treat the surface with clean warm water. Wait until the surface is completely dry.
  3. We open the jar with paint and varnish material, we dilute the composition with a solvent( White spirit or solvent), stir the contents well.
  4. Apply the enamel paint to three thin layers. In this case, each subsequent layer is applied only after the final drying of the previous one.

Tip! Enamel paint for the second and third layers is recommended to cook a little thicker than for the first.

At the end of the article we remind you that you can work with enamel paint only in protective glasses, a respirator and gloves. Alkyds are very toxic both during surface painting and during drying.

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